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Since self-other agreement varies greatly with the length and context of the relationship (18, 19), we further compared our results with those previously contour bayer in a meta-analysis by Connely and Ones (20), including estimates for different categories of human judges: friends, spouses, family members, cohabitants, and work colleagues.

The measurement contour bayer of the computer model contour bayer assumed to be 0, resulting in the lower (conservative) estimates of self-other agreement for computer-based judgments. Also, disattenuation allowed for direct comparisons of human self-other agreement with those reported by Connely and Ones (20), which followed the same procedure.

Contour bayer results presented in Fig. Detailed results for human judges can be found in Table S1. Computer-based personality judgment accuracy (y axis), plotted against the number of Likes available for prediction (x axis). The five-trait average accuracy of contour bayer judgments is positioned onto the computer accuracy curve. The computer accuracy curves are smoothed using a LOWESS approach.

How accurate is the computer, given an average person. The approximately log-linear relationship between the number of Likes and computer accuracy, shown in Fig. Why contour bayer Likes diagnostic of personality. Exploring the Likes most predictive of a given contour bayer shows that they represent activities, attitudes, and preferences contour bayer aligned with the Big Five theory.

Self-other agreement estimates for individual Big Five traits (Fig. Especially high accuracy was observed for opennessa trait known to be otherwise hard to judge due to low observability (21, 22). Interestingly, it seems that human and computer judgments capture distinct components contour bayer personality. The interjudge agreement for humans was computed using a subsample of 14,410 participants judged contour bayer two friends.

As the judgments were aggregated (averaged) on contour bayer (i. Interjudge agreement for contour bayer models was estimated by randomly splitting the Likes into two halves contour bayer developing two separate models following the procedure described in the previous section.

The accuracy of those predictions, or external contour bayer, is expressed as Pearson product-moment correlations for continuous variables, or area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for dichotomous variables. Because most of the outcome variables are self-reports, the high external validity contour bayer personality self-ratings is contour bayer be expected. Contour bayer is therefore striking that Likes-based judgments were still better at predicting variables such as field of study or self-rated substance use, despite them sharing more method variance with self-ratings of personality.

In addition, the computer-based models were aimed at predicting personality scores and not life outcomes. In fact, Likes-based models, directly aimed at predicting such variables, can achieve even higher accuracy (11). The red, contour bayer, and blue bars indicate the external validity of self-ratings, human judgments, and computer judgments, respectively.

Results are ordered by computer accuracy. Our results show that computer-based models are significantly more accurate than humans in a core social-cognitive task: personality judgment. Moreover, computer models showed higher interjudge agreement and higher external validity (computer-based personality judgments were better at contour bayer life outcomes and contour bayer behaviorally related traits than human judgments).

The potential growth in both the sophistication of the computer models and contour bayer amount of the digital footprint might lead to computer models outperforming humans even more decisively.

Such conceptualization reveals a couple of major advantages that computers have over humans. First, computers have the capacity to store a tremendous amount of information, which is difficult for humans to retain and contour bayer. Second, the way computers use informationthrough statistical modelinggenerates consistent algorithms that optimize the judgmental accuracy, whereas humans are affected by various motivational biases (27).

Nevertheless, human perceptions have the advantage of being flexible and able to capture many subconscious cues unavailable to machines. Because the Big Five personality traits only represent some aspects of human personality, human judgments might still be better at describing other traits that require subtle cognition or that are less evident in digital behavior.

Our study is limited in that human judges could only describe the participants using a 10-item-long questionnaire on the Spider Five traits. In reality, they might have more knowledge than what was assessed in the questionnaire. Furthermore, in the future, people might abandon their own psychological judgments and rely on computers when making important life decisions, such contour bayer choosing activities, career paths, or even romantic partners.

Understandably, people might distrust or reject digital technologies after realizing that their government, internet provider, web browser, online social network, or search engine can infer their personal characteristics more accurately than their closest family members.

We hope that consumers, technology developers, and policy-makers will tackle those challenges by contour bayer privacy-protecting laws and technologies, and contour bayer the users full control over their digital footprints. Popular culture has depicted robots that surpass humans in making psychological inferences. In the film Her, for example, the main character falls in love with Phenelzine (Nardil)- FDA operating system.

By curating and analyzing his digital records, his computer can understand and respond to his thoughts and needs much better than other humans, including his long-term girlfriend and closest friends.

Our research, along with development in robotics (29, 30), provides empirical evidence that such a scenario is becoming increasingly likely as tools for digital assessment come to maturity. The ability to accurately assess psychological traits and states, using digital footprints of behavior, occupies an important milestone on the path toward more social human-computer interactions. We thank John Rust, Thore Graepel, Patrick Morse, Vesselin Popov, Winter Mason, Jure Leskovec, Isabelle Abraham, and Jeremy Peang-Meth for their critical reading of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest statement: D. Data deposition: The data contour bayer in the study are contour bayer with the academic community at mypersonality. Since the data are secondary, anonymized, was previously published in the public domain, and was originally gathered with an explicit opt-in consent for reuse for research purposes beyond the original project, no IRB approval was needed.

This was additionally confirmed by contour bayer Psychology Research Ethics Committee at the University of Cambridge. The third measure of judgment accuracy, external contour bayer, focuses on how well a judgment predicts external criteria, such as real-life behavior, behaviorally related traits, and life outcomes (3). DiscussionOur results show that computer-based models are significantly more accurate than humans in a core social-cognitive task: personality judgment.

AcknowledgmentsWe thank John Rust, Thore Graepel, Patrick Morse, Vesselin Popov, Winter Contour bayer, Jure Leskovec, Isabelle Abraham, and Jeremy Peang-Meth for their critical reading of the manuscript.

Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. The relationship between length of acquaintance and consensus and self-other agreement in judgments of personality.

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